Scientists have discovered in the brain the cells responsible for courage
Why some people are able to walk on a rope stretched between skyscrapers, while others freeze at the mere thought of descending an escalator in a shopping mall? According to the researchers, a certain type of cell found in the hippocampus is responsible for this.
People are very roThe way they react to danger. Even siblings can exhibit significant roDifferences in attitudes toward risky behavior. Neurological mechanisms thatore responsible for risk-taking are largely unknown.
Researchers from the Department of Neurology at Uppsala University in Sweden and the Institute of Mozgu of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil found that someoreorki of the hippocampus play a key role in risk-taking behavior. A publication on this topic appeared on „Nature Communications”.
The authors of the paper indicate that neurons known as comorki OLMs, when stimulated, produce activity in the mozgu, a certain rhythm, similar to that observed in animals when they feel safe in a dangerous environment. For example, when they are well hidden from a predator but are aware of its proximity. Teamoł scientistsow has shown that anxiety behavior and risk propensity can be controlled or even steered by manipulating the comoOLM cells.
A sense of fear is essential for survival. Allows to avoid predationow and life-threatening and health-threatening situations, resulting in significantly increased chances of survival. Unfortunately, in many osob anxiety can be dysfunctional and seriously interfere with daily life. The ability to modulate its intensity would be ideal for treating severe conditionsoin anxiety.
Until now, for pathological anxiety, doctors have prescribed antidepressants to pomoc patients to pull themselves together and somehow function. However, these drugs act on the entire area of the mozgu, and not just in the regions ktorych are needed, and therefore can have serious side effects. Operation in a single region of the mozgu and in a very specific group of comorek to control anxiety could be an important breakthrough in treating the conditionoin anxiety and related disorders, such as depression.
Another interesting finding in the study is that the comoOLM cells can be controlled with the means ofoin pharmacological. The same complexoł researchers previously discovered that the comoOLM rks play an important role in memory formation. Hippocampus headownie is responsible for learning abilities and for remembering. Scientists in earlier studies have also found that comorks of the OLM are extremely sensitive to nicotine.
– This finding may explain why people smoke when they are anxious – said Dr. Richardson Leao, head of theowny author of the publication. The hippocampus’ involvement in emotion is much less studied than its role in memory and cognition. Scientists are just beginning to analyze the involvement of this structure in emotion regulation.
– It is fascinating howob rodifferent regions of the same structure mozg control distinct behaviors. The fascinating roalso the wayob how they interact with each other. Identification of specific circuitsoIn the underlying process ofoin cognitive or emotional is crucial to ogolar understanding of the function of mozgu and for a more specific development of drugoIn the treatment of anxiety disorders – explained Sanja Mikulovic, cooauthor of the publication.
The discovery of these neuronow and their role in anxiety and risk-taking could open the way to developing highly effective drugsoIn dealing with these disorders without widespread effectsow side effects, such as apathy.
Sourceobackground: Uppsala Universitet, fot. CC BY-ND 2.0/ Flickr/ Tambako The Jaguar